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肺癌病人化疗前后应该吃什么?
American Cancer Society / 2016-05-05

作者:talich
链接:https://www.zhihu.com/question/28779208/answer/42303874
来源:知乎
著作权归作者所有。商业转载请联系作者获得授权,非商业转载请注明出处。

下面的,是从美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)网站上的《癌症病人家庭护理:给病人和家属的指南》(Caring for the Patient With Cancer at Home: A Guide for Patients and Families)中《食欲不振》(Appetite, poor)一章。仅供参考。

中文是我自己翻译的,版权由美国癌症协会所有。我是业余人士,翻译多有疏漏错误,欢迎大家指正。也欢迎专业人士就中国的具体情况提出适合中国国情的建议。

又:文中提到多处其他章节,就不附了,一个是没翻译完,一个是全贴出来太长了。英文水平还可以的请到上面提到的美国癌症协会网站上自己查阅。要读中文的,这里有美国癌症协会 2009 年的《癌症病患居家照護:病患與家屬指南》中文版(http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@editorial/documents/document/acspc-029013.pdf)

( @蔡依憬 的答案中给出了美国癌症协会更全面的饮食建议,以及美国肺癌协会关于肺癌患者的营养建议,能读英文文献的知友可移步参考。)

食欲不振
Appetite, poor

一个食欲不振或没有食欲的人,可能会比正常时候得少吃很多,甚至会什么也不吃。 食欲不振的原因很多样,比如吞咽困难,抑郁,疼痛,晕眩,或呕吐。(如果想进一步了解这些原因的话,请查看相关条目。)食欲不振可能是因为味觉或嗅觉发生 了变化,有饱腹感,肿瘤变大,脱水(请查看“体液(缺失)和脱水”),或者是化疗或放疗带来的副作用。通常情况下,食欲不振只是暂时的。
A person with a poor appetite or no appetite may eat much less than they normally do or may not eat at all. A poor appetite can be caused by many things, such as trouble swallowing, depression, pain, nausea, or vomiting. (For more information on these causes, see the related sections.) A poor appetite can also be due to a changed sense of taste or smell, feeling full, tumor growth, dehydration (see the section called “Fluids (lack of) and dehydration”), or the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation. A poor appetite is most often a short-term problem.

要注意什么
What to look for

    对食物没兴趣(Lack of interest in food)
    不想吃自己喜欢的食物(Refusing to eat favorite foods)
    体重减轻(Weight loss)


病人可以做什么
What the patient can do

    和医生讨论造成自己食欲不振的可能原因。(Talk with your doctor about what may be causing your poor appetite.)
    想吃多少就吃多少,但不要强迫自己吃。(Eat as much as you want to, but don’t force yourself to eat.)
    把食物当成是治疗的一个必要部分。(Think of food as a necessary part of treatment.)
    每天第一件事就是吃早餐。(Start the day with breakfast.)
    少吃多餐,吃自己喜欢的食物。(Eat small, frequent meals of favorite foods.)
    吃卡路里高且容易呑咽的食物(比如布丁,明胶,冰琪淋,sherbet[一种冰冻的水果甜点],酸奶,或奶昔)。(Try foods high in calories that are easy to eat (such as pudding, gelatin, ice cream, sherbet, yogurt, or milkshakes).)
    往肉里加上汤汁调料,把肉切成小块,以方便呑咽。(Add sauces and gravies to meats, and cut meats into small pieces to make them easy to swallow.)
    在食物里加入黄油,食用油,糖浆,和牛奶以增加卡路里。不要吃低脂肪的食品,除非脂肪带来烧心或其他不适。(Use butter, oils, syrups, and milk in foods to increase calories. Avoid low-fat foods unless fats cause heartburn or other problems.)
    加重口味,或用调味料。(Try strong flavorings or spices.)
    营造舒适的吃饭环境。用背景音乐,聊天,和其他分神的方法或许能让你吃得更好。(Create pleasant settings for meals. Soft music, conversation, and other distractions may help you eat better.)
    和家里人一起吃饭。(Eat with other family members.)
    不要在吃饭 时喝水,而是在饭与饭之间喝水。(吃饭时喝水会把你灌饱。)(Drink liquids between meals instead of with meals. (Drinking liquids at mealtime can fill you up.))
    试试在一小时饭前做一点运动。(Try light exercise an hour before meals.)
    硬糖,薄荷糖,或姜味汽水都可能帮你去除嘴里的异味。(Hard candies, mint tea, or ginger ale might help get rid of strange tastes in your mouth.)
    如果你的医生同意,在饭前喝一杯啤酒或葡萄酒。(With your doctor’s OK, enjoy a glass of beer or wine before eating.)
    睡觉前吃点零食。(Eat a snack at bedtime.)
    如果你不想吃饭,就试试流食,比如加了味的营养素(比如 Ensure®, Sustacal®, Boost®, Carnation Instant Breakfast®, 以及其他产品)。如有需要,可以用吸管喝。(When you don’t feel like eating, try liquid meals, such as flavored supplements (like Ensure®, Sustacal®, Boost®, Carnation Instant Breakfast®, and others). Use a straw if it helps.)


护理人员能做什么
What caregivers can do

    每天尽量给病人6到8份小餐或零食。(Try giving the patient 6 to 8 small meals and snacks each day.)
    提供富含淀粉的食物,比如面包,通心粉,或土豆,富含蛋白质的食物,比如鱼,鸡,肉,火鸡,鸡蛋,奶酪,牛奶,豆腐,坚果,花生酱,酸奶,碗豆,和豆类。 (Offer starchy foods, such as bread, pasta, or potatoes, with high-protein foods, such as fish, chicken, meats, turkey, eggs, cheeses, milk, tofu, nuts, peanut butter, yogurt, peas, and beans.)
    让病人能就近拿到冷饮和果汁。(Keep cool drinks and juices within the patient’s reach.)
    如果病人不喜欢食物的气味,那就提供室温下或冷冻的没有味道的食物。(If the smell of food bothers the patient, serve bland foods cold or at room temperature.)
    营造舒适的吃饭环境,和病人一同用餐。(Create pleasant settings for meals, and eat with the patient.)
    如果病人不想吃饭,提供水果冰沙,奶昔,或流食。(Offer fruit smoothies, milkshakes, or liquid meals when the patient doesn’t want to eat.)
    如果病人觉得金属餐具有苦味或金属味,就换成塑料餐具。(Try plastic forks and knives instead of metal if the patient is bothered by bitter or metallic tastes.)
    如果病人不想吃饭或吃不下饭,不要责怪自己。(Don’t blame yourself if the patient refuses food or can’t eat.)
    如果病人无法进食,你或许需要陪伴在侧。病人愿意的话,也可以给他们念东西或做按摩。(If the patient can’t eat, you might want to offer just your company. Or offer to read to them or give them a massage.)


病人出现以下情况,就给医生打电话
Call the doctor if the patient:

    感到恶心,不能进食一天以上(Feels nauseated and cannot eat for a day or more)
    体重减轻5磅[约5斤]以上(Loses 5 pounds or more)
    吃饭时感到疼痛(Feels pain when eating)
    一天都没有排尿,或两天以上没有便意(Does not urinate for an entire day or does not move bowels for 2 days or more)
    很少排尿,排尿时,尿量很小,味道很大,或颜色深(Does not urinate often, and when they do, the urine comes out in small amounts, smells strong, or is dark colored)
    持续24小时呕吐(Vomits for more than 24 hours)
    无法喝流质,或喝下后总要吐出(Is unable to drink or keep down liquids)
    无法控制的疼痛(Has pain that is not controlled)



Last Medical Review: 11/05/2013
Last Revised: 11/05/2013

 

 

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